Toro continues to expand its impressive lineup of e-vehicles. Read on to find answers to common questions about lithium-ion batteries. 

Should I fully charge my lithium-ion battery before storage? 

Storing batteries at 100% charge shortens their lifespan. Before storing your machine or battery, charge or discharge the batteries to 40 to 60% — 50% is optimal. Storing batteries at this percentage keeps the battery-cell voltages at a specific range, which helps reduce parasitic reactions that may lead to inefficiencies and reduce the amount of energy that the cell can store and output. 

Will outside temperature affect the battery during storage? 

Storing for long periods of time at extreme temperatures will reduce the battery life. Batteries stored at minus 20.5°C (-5°F) or colder must warm up for the battery management system to engage the battery pack. Storing batteries in extreme heat 25-55°C (77 – 131°F) for longer than 1 month may affect their long-term health.

What is power? How is it calculated?
Power is the amount of electricity needed to run an electric motor at a given moment. This instantaneous supply of electrical energy is measured in watts or kilowatts. 1000 watts = 1 KW. For example, an electric motor has an output capable of delivering 1 KW, or 1000 watts of power. 

What is energy? How is it calculated?
Energy is the amount of power needed to run an electric motor for a period of time; or the amount of stored electrical capacity within a battery. Energy is measured in watt hours or kilowatt hours (kWh), which can be calculated by the amount of power (kW) multiplied by the time (hours). Batteries are measured in kWh. If a battery pack is rated at 8.64 kWh, the battery back has the capability of delivering 8.64 KW for one hour OR 1 KW for 8 hours.

Why is it important to maintain clean and tight cable connections? 

Lithium-ion batteries are connected through numerous cables between the batteries and the battery management system. These connections need to be clean and tight or capacity issues, faults and operational issues may occur.  

For more information on lithium-ion batteries or to view Toro’s full lineup of battery-powered products, visit